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托福阅读素材:蛙叫
发布日期:2017-10-02 13:29:15     0赞    0

  很多考生会抱怨托福阅读时间不够,还没完全理解文章就做题,正确率不高。其实这是我们对托福阅读素材不熟悉造成的,下面小编整理了一下托福阅读考试最新的素材,希望能帮助大家更加快速高效的备考托福。

  托福阅读素材:蛙叫

  内容回忆:

  文章讲述了雄性青蛙的两种叫声的不同意义。其中有假说和实验证实了青蛙的叫声中一种就是单纯的叫声,没有太大的实际意义。但另一种情况就是,这种雄性青蛙的声音对雌性有着吸引作用,以及它的另一个作用与躲避天敌有关。

  参考阅读:TPO40: passage3

  Ethology is concerned with the study of adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its evolutionary history. Ethological theory began to be applied to research on children in the 1960's but has become even more influential today. The origins of ethology can be traced back to the work of Darwin. Its modern foundations were laid by two European zoologists, Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen.

  Watching the behaviors diverse animal species in their natural habitats, Lorenz, and Tinbergen observed behavior patterns that promote survival. The most well-known of these is imprinting, the early following behavior of certain baby birds that ensures that the young will stay close to their mother and be fed and protected from danger. Imprinting takes place during an early, restricted time period of development. If the mother goose is not present during this time, but an object resembling her in important features is, young goslings may imprint on it instead.

  Observations of imprinting led to major concept that has been applied in child development — the critical period. It refers to a limited times span during which the child is biologically prepared to acquire certain adaptive behaviors but needs the support of suitably stimulating environment. Many researchers have conducted studies to find out whether complex cognitive and social behaviors must be learned during restricted time periods. For example, if children are deprived of adequate food or physical and social stimulation during the early years of life, will their intelligence be permanently impaired? If language is not mastered during the preschool years, is the child's capacity to acquire it reduced?

  Inspired by observations of imprinting, in 1969 the British psychoanalyst John Bowlby applied ethological theory to the understanding of the relationship between an infant and its parents. He argued that attachment behaviors of babies, such as smiling, babbling, grasping, and crying, are built-in social signals that encourage the parents to approach, care for, and interact with the baby. By keeping a parent near, these behaviors help ensure that the baby will be fed, protected from danger, and provided with the stimulation and affection necessary for healthy growth. The development of attachment in human infants is a lengthy process involving changes in psychological structures that lead to a deep affectional tie between parent and baby.

 
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