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托福备考 - 阅读
7天搞定托福阅读-Day 6
发布日期:2017-06-10 09:07:28     0赞    0

  在托福阅读中,还有一类题型经常出现,那就是paraphrase。这类问题需要大家在给出的选项选择与文章中的长难句意义相近的一句话。这类问题还是有一定难度的,因为选项中存在一些干扰项。那么这类问题有哪些解题技巧呢?

  Strategies to answer this question:

  1. 划分句子主谓宾,充分理解句子意思;

  2. 将句子大意用自己的话复述一遍,简化句子成分;

  3. 看问题选项中有没有跟刚复述的句子意义相似的句子;

  4. 选出正确答案后,看一下其他错误选项。这些错误选项有的意思跟原文不同,有的漏掉了原文中的重要内容。找出这些错误,确保万无一失。

  Example:

  大家先来看一个例子:

  Rather than sell the painting, which is most likely worth millions of dollars, the Jesuits decided to make it available to the nation of Ireland for viewing. Thus, the painting is on “indefinite loan” to the National Gallery of Ireland. Nevertheless, the painting continues its travels as it features in exhibitions around the world, from the United States to Amsterdam.

  Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence?

  a. The National Gallery of Ireland now owns the painting.

  b. The National Gallery of Ireland bought the painting from the Jesuits.

  c. The National Gallery of Ireland can display the painting, but the Jesuits still own it.

  d. The National Gallery of Ireland can display the painting as long as they allow it to travel.

  想要回答正确,就要准确理解文中indefinite loan的意思。”Loan”可以理解为an object is being lent,那么这句话的意思就很明白了。尽管爱尔兰国家画廊展出了这幅画,但他的所有者仍是Jesuits。

  这样就可以排除A项跟B项。D项应改为:while the gallery can display the painting—this is not contingent upon it traveling.

  根据上面的Tips,大家来做几题巩固一下吧。

  1. The Cherokee pronoun system, for example, can distinguish between 'you and I', 'several other people and I' and 'you, another person and I'. In English, all these meanings are summed up in the one, crude pronoun 'we'. Grammar is universal and plays a part in every language, no matter how widespread it is. So the question which has baffled many linguists is - who created grammar?

  Which sentence is closest in meaning to the highlighted sentence?

  A. All languages, whether they are spoken by a few people or a lot of people, contain grammar.

  B . Some languages include a lot of grammar, whereas other languages contain a little.

  C. Languages which contain a lot of grammar are more common that languages that contain a little.

  D. The grammar of all languages is the same, no matter where the languages evolved.

  2. The implications of this experiment are that because monkeys make the same irrational judgements that humans do, maybe human error is not a result of the complexity of our financial institutions, but is imbedded in our evolutionary history. If this is the case, our errors of judgement will be very difficult to overcome. On a more optimistic note however, humans are fully capable of overcoming limitations once we have identified them. By recognising them, we can design technologies which will help us to make better choices in future.

  Which of the following statements is the best paraphrase of the highlighted sentence?

  A. Hopefully, humans will soon be able to solve these problems.

  B. Fortunately, humans can solve problems that we know about.

  C. Luckily, humans do not have many limitations which have been identified.

  D. We are happy to note that we can solve the problem which we have identified.

  3. But classical concerts weren't always so formal. In the eighteenth century, the audience talked during performances and yelled words of encouragement to the players. People clapped at the end of each movement of a symphony and often in the middle of the movement as well. After an exceptionally pleasing performance, listeners would demand that the piece be repeated immediately (an encore). If, on the other hand, the audience didn't like what it heard, it would express its displeasure by throwing fruit and other debris toward the stage. Our modern, more dignified classical concert was a creation of the nineteenth century, when the musical composition became to be considered a work of high art worthy of reverential silence.

  Which of the following best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence? Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  A. At a time of change in the attitude toward classical music of the 19th century, concerts were given greater dignity.

  B. Although the classical concert had not previously been treated with silent respect, it now is, due to a change in perspective over a century ago.

  C. A shift in opinions in the 19th century led to more highly regarded art, such as classical music concerts, which audiences refrain from disrupting.

  D. The modern reception to classical music is highly influenced by a time in the 19th century when classical music came to be regarded as an art.

  4. As a result of the crustal adjustments and faulting, the Strait of Gibraltar, where the Mediterranean now connects to the Atlantic, opened, and the water cascaded spectacularly back into the Mediterranean.

  Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information of this sentence?

  A. The Strait of Gibraltar reopened when the Mediterranean and the Atlantic became connected and the cascades of water from one sea to the other caused crustal adjustments and faulting.

  B. The Mediterranean was dramatically refilled by water from the Atlantic when crustal adjustments and faulting opened the Strait of Gibraltar, the place where the two seas are joined.

  C. The cascades of water from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean were not as spectacular as the crustal adjustments and faulting that occurred when the Strait of Gibraltar was connected to those seas.

  D. As a result of crustal adjustments and faulting and the creation of the Strait of Gibraltar, the Atlantic and Mediterranean were connected and became a single sea with spectacular cascades of water between them.

 
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